Introduction: The abuse of antibiotics as well as the development of microbial resistance in them is a global phenomenon.
Aim: The purpose of this study is to highlight the rational use of antibiotics and limitation of microbial resistance.
Material and methods: Extensive review of the recent literature was conducted in electronic database Medline and via the link of the Greek Association of Academic Libraries (HEAL-Link), using the following key words: antibiotics, medicine, and rational use.
Results: The rational use of antibiotics is therefore it should not be random. It requires reflection and thought and should be based on rules. The correct diagnosis, the patient's condition, the location of the infection, the severity of the microbial cause sensitivities to antibiotics, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antimicrobials, the side effects and cost are the main elements which must be supported in every decision for their use.
Conclusion: Doctors and other professionals should prescribe antibiotics only when necessary, based on existing guidelines.
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